Due to its large core diameter and good flexibility, plastic optical fibers are widely used in decorative lighting and short-distance information transmission. In the field of decorative lighting, plastic optical fiber lighting is a new way of decorative lighting that integrates environmental protection, safety, energy saving, convenient maintenance and unique effects. Due to the characteristics of plastic optical fiber, optical fiber decorative lighting is widely used in advertising, landscape design, entertainment venues, and special lighting occasions such as industry, medicine, and museums. It is the best lighting method in the field of decorative lighting in the 21st century. This article gives a brief introduction to the application of plastic optical fiber in the field of decorative lighting, hoping to resonate with the industry.
Second, the development of fiber optic lighting
Fiber optic lighting was accepted as early as the 1930s, but it was only a thought and experiment. The fiber used was mainly bundled glass fiber. Due to the high cost, it could not reach the practical stage.
In the 1960s, DuPont Company used polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as the core material to prepare plastic optical fiber, but the fiber loss was large, and the fiber optic lighting was not put into practical use.
In the late 1970s, with the great emphasis on plastic optical fiber in various academic circles, some large companies and universities in Japan conducted extensive research on the preparation of low-loss plastic optical fibers. In 1980, Mitsubishi Rayon polymerized PMMA with high-purity MMA monomer to reduce the loss of plastic fiber to less than 200 dB/km, and successfully realized industrialization and commercialization, thus truly pushing the fiber-optic decorative lighting to a practical stage.
By the late 1980s, domestic research institutes engaged in the research, development and production of plastic optical fibers had made certain breakthroughs, including the Xi'an Institute of Optics and Mechanics, the Wuhan University of Posts and Telecommunications, the Nanjing Fiberglass Research Institute and Xi'an Jiaotong University. .
Nanjing Glass Fiber Research Institute has studied the plastic optical fiber with PS as the core material. The first batch production of PS plastic optical fiber has been realized in China, and the monthly output is over 1000kg. Because its optical loss is more than 1000dB/km, and its flexibility is not good, it can only be used in optical fiber crafts and some advertising decoration projects.
The product technical indicators are leading domestically and close to the international advanced level. This product is mainly used in architectural decoration, museums and other special occasion lighting and short-distance communication. It is the only production enterprise in China that industrializes and commercializes low-loss PMMA plastic optical fiber.
Third, the composition of the fiber optic lighting system
The fiber optic illumination system generally consists of a light source generator, an optical fiber and a taillight.
1, the light source generator
The light source generator is mainly composed of three parts: a bulb, an infrared and ultraviolet optical glass sheet and a color wheel.
(1) The bulbs mainly use halogen tungsten bulbs (halogen lamps) and metal halide bulbs (metal halide bulbs) halogen bulbs (also known as quartz bulbs in the industry). Commonly used powers are 20W, 35W, 50W, 75W, 100W, which are mainly used for illumination requirements. Not high-profile occasions, such as home packaging and KTV rooms. The feature is that the price is cheap, the light source generator is small and easy to install. The common power of metal halide bulbs is 70W, 100W, 150W, 250W. The brands of the products are Osram, GE and Philips. Its light efficiency and color temperature are higher than those of halogen lamps. At present, more OSRAM 150W metal halide bulbs are used.
(2) The infrared and ultraviolet optical glass filters filter out most of the infrared and ultraviolet rays to protect the fiber.
(3) The color change of the color wheel beam is realized by changing the color filters of different colors, and generally has several colors such as red, yellow, green, and blue. The color film is fixed on a rotatable color wheel, and then the color of the beam is transformed by a stepping motor. In order to make fiber optic lighting more colorful and adapt to a wider range of needs, the intelligent controller replaces the ordinary power controller. It can change the intensity of light and the color of light continuously or flicker. In the music fountain, it can also change with the rhythm of its music.
The plastic fiber itself does not emit light, mainly to conduct light. The plastic optical fiber for decorative lighting is divided into two types: end optical fiber and side optical fiber according to the difference of the user, and there are single and multiple strands.
(1) end-optic fiber, also known as tail-light fiber
Mainly use the end face illumination of the fiber to achieve the effect of decorative illumination. The application mode is flexible and variable. The end points are used to form various patterns and simulate the starry sky effect. The optical principle can also be used to create magical effects such as time and space tunnels. He is mainly used in advertising signs, entertainment venues, cultural relics lighting, and home decoration.
(2) side-light fiber, also known as whole body light-emitting fiber
The light is evenly scattered along the length of the fiber, and the halo is used to achieve the decorative effect. The use of side-light fibers can outline the contours of objects or form various artistic shapes. Due to their long service life, they are widely used to outline the contours of buildings and pools and the road guidance of underground tunnels.
For end-illuminated fibers, the taillights are generally selected based on the lighting requirements and the artistic effect of the decoration. Common taillights include ceiling lights, pavilions, buried lights, chandeliers, etc.
Fourth, the characteristics of plastic optical fiber decorative lighting
1, flexible transmission of light
In theory, light is transmitted in a straight line. However, due to the diversity of practical applications, it is always desirable to be able to easily change the direction of light propagation. Fiber optic lighting meets this requirement. This is one of the characteristics of fiber optic lighting.
2, separation of light and electricity
In traditional lighting, light is directly converted from light energy into light energy, and light and electricity are inseparable. However, electricity has certain dangers, so many occasions want to separate light from electricity, eliminate various hidden dangers, and ensure the safety of lighting. Therefore, the separation of light and electricity is the second characteristic of fiber optic lighting.
3, only visible light, no infrared and ultraviolet
The spectrum produced by a typical light source includes not only visible light but also infrared and ultraviolet light. In some special occasions, infrared and ultraviolet light are not desirable, such as cultural relic lighting. Since the low-loss window of the plastic optical fiber is in the visible spectrum, the transmittance of infrared light and ultraviolet light is very low. With the special treatment of the light source machine, the light emitted from the optical fiber is cold light without infrared rays and ultraviolet rays. This is the third feature of fiber optic lighting.
4, rich color conversion
Another major feature of fiber optic decorative lighting is that the same point can be multi-color, the color of fiber optic illumination is mainly controlled by the light source generator, and the same fiber can transmit various colors to people's line of sight, achieving the same point or same line variable. The effect of color.
5, the color is soft and pure
The plastic fiber optic lighting system is soft in color and has no light pollution. The plastic optical fiber decorative lighting uses the method of filtering the spectrum to change the color of the light source. After the fiber is transmitted, the color is softer and purer, and the visual effect is very prominent.
V. Application status of plastic optical fiber
Due to the unique advantages of fiber optic lighting, it has been widely used in various occasions and is constantly being promoted. The current domestic application situation and occasions are briefly described as follows:
1, interior decoration
In the interior decoration, the side light-emitting fiber is used to form the corridor line, the illumination is uniform, the color is soft, giving a sense of harmony and happiness; the rational use of the fine-end light creates a romantic and warm atmosphere at home, in your own home. It is also like the feeling of bathing in a bar. In the hotel lobby, the crystal chandelier made by Meteor fiber is more gorgeous and unique through various colors and highlights. In the KTV room and the performing hall, the end light fiber is used to form a The artistic effect of the pattern, at the same time can also use the end of the optical fiber ceiling, can simulate the effect of the starry sky, flickering, making people have unlimited space imagination.
2, water lighting
When the waterscape leaves the lighting, it loses its fascinating scenery. Ordinary lighting brings dangerous dangers to visitors. When we visit the waterscape, we can usually see the words "Do not play, be careful with electricity", which will undoubtedly bring some regrets to our tour. Since optical fiber illumination realizes photoelectric separation, the use of optical fiber illumination as an embellishment of waterscape is not only bright and novel, but also absolutely safe and reliable, which is the best match. In addition to lighting the water, the fiber optic lighting makes the water color more beautiful, and the side light fiber can also be used to form the pool line of the pool. The vertical colored water poses with the horizontal pool outline to create a harmonious line of beauty.
3. Urban architecture
In lighting engineering, the use of side-emitting fibers to form a building outline is the most common application. Especially for the image building of a city, the outline of the building is more spectacular in the night with colorful lines. At the same time, the fiber has a long service life and is a maintenance-free product, which greatly reduces operating expenses. In addition, the color of the decorative lighting of the fiber can be changed, so that the color of the outline of the building changes with the season or the climate, giving people a humanized feeling.
In the landscaping, the end-illuminated fiber is used as a pavilion lamp and a buried lamp, so that the green space and the road also have color changes while lighting.
5, road lighting
On the landscape road, the star-shaped end-emitting fiber is installed into a fiber-optic ramp, which increases the fun of the landscape. At the same time, the meteor cable can be laid on the ground, and people walk on it as if they are floating in the light color. People have endless delusions.
6, cave lighting
The cave is a natural landscape, and because it is not exposed to sunlight, it is illuminated by light. The versatile light color and flexible fiber make it more useful for irregular lava and lakeshore, making the cave more attractive. The most important thing is to remove the hidden dangers of tourists.
7. Ancient buildings and cultural relics lighting
Under the general illumination of the light, due to the action of ultraviolet light, the buildings such as books and wooden structures are accelerated and aged. At the same time, there is a danger of fire caused by electricity. With fiber optic lighting, it is safe and achieves the desired artistic effect.
8, flammable and explosive occasions
In dangerous places where fire pits are strictly prohibited in oil depots, mining areas, etc. The application of various other lighting has hidden dangers of open flames. If you are not careful, it will cause a big disaster. From a safety point of view, fiber optics should be an ideal illumination because of the separation of light and electricity.
9, the use of sunlight
In our common solar energy utilization, sunlight is converted into heat or electricity, and optical fiber can directly use sunlight to improve the lighting of the living room. For the dark basement and tunnel, fiber optic lighting can be used forever. Light can be seen again in places where there is less sunshine.
Sixth, application prospects
Fiber optic lighting is a novel lighting technology that will be more widely used as the product matures and new application areas are developed. At the same time, it is constantly improving in the popularization, the cost is continuously reduced, and the products are more mature. Let the fiber optic lighting enter the homes of ordinary people as soon as possible and serve the public.