Illuminating the progress of technology and illuminating environmental presets

The output of compact fluorescent lamps is 1.4 billion, accounting for 80% of the world. The industrial structure of electric light sources has gradually shifted to energy-saving. In 2005, the export value of lighting brands reached 8.092 billion US dollars, an increase of 20.1% over the same period. The average luminous efficiency increased to 5-8lm/W, and the average life expectancy increased to 4,000h. From 1996 to 2004, the domestic green lighting saved 45 billion kWh. A large number of grid peak loads, equivalent to reducing CO2 emissions by 13 million tons, have now established five national semiconductor lighting engineering industrialization bases in Beijing, Shanghai, Dalian, Nanchang, Xiamen and Shenzhen, as a new type of solid-state light source with a broad Prospects continue to improve energy efficiency, reduce the cost of LED lamps, expand power, and spread the area under the premise of solving cost performance and heat dissipation. 1 China's lighting industry development status The industrial scale continues to expand, the product structure tends to be optimized, and the export volume continues to grow. The equipment level has been gradually improved, the product quality has been continuously improved, the market share of high-efficiency lighting products has been continuously improved, and the economic and social benefits have been significantly developed. The application of semiconductor lighting has been fully valued in China. Energy conservation The environment is the eternal theme of the continuous development of the lighting industry. Global market share of 100 billion US dollars, China's possession The US$11.4 billion has formed a relatively complete lighting industry system, and its output has shown a steady growth trend. In 2004, the output of electric light sources was 9 billion, ranking first in the world. Among them, 2.37 billion fluorescent lamps, accounting for 26.3% of the total, have the capacity to manufacture different types of electric light sources. The process is gradually moving towards mechanization and automated assembly line production, and the quality of products is continuously improved. The national supervision and spot check shows that it was compact between 1998 and 2003. The qualified rate of fluorescent lamps is 49.5%~95.1%. In 1998, the sales volume of high-efficiency lighting products increased significantly, and the lighting power saving effect was remarkable. According to the sample survey, the use of high-efficiency lighting products accounted for 43% of the total social use in 2003. In 2003, solid-state light sources have invested a large amount of money, so that LED lights can be obtained in the fields of traffic signals, large screen display and transportation, factories, mines, military, decorative lighting, etc. widely used. Its energy-saving and environmental protection effects have been significantly improved by 70% to 80% (landscape and traffic signal penetration rate >90%), becoming the largest production and exporting country of solar LED lamps. In 2005, lighting electricity accounted for 12% of the national power generation, which should be strongly advocated. Green lighting, in order to promote high-efficiency energy-saving products in hotels, commercial buildings, office buildings, residential and public facilities, develop cost-effective light sources, miniaturized energy-saving illuminators and intelligent control systems with the growing demand for material life, electrical lighting The requirements are becoming more and more strict, the illuminance level is appropriately raised, and the standards of the country and developed countries are closer together; the quality of lighting is improved, and the internationally advanced lighting quality indicators are adopted to strive for advanced technology, economical rationality, safe use and easy maintenance. Save energy, protect the environment and improve the quality of the lighting environment.

In the "Green Lighting Engineering Technical Specifications" and "Architectural Lighting Design Standards", reasonable requirements for lighting energy conservation are proposed for lighting design, and implementation should be implemented in accordance with the specific design.

2. Illumination mode The lighting design determines the lighting method based on the knowledge of the illuminated space.

Article 3.1.1 of the "Architectural Lighting Design Standards" (GB50034-2004) stipulates that the lighting method should be determined: general lighting should be used in the workplace; when different illumination areas in different areas of the same site have different illumination requirements, partitioned general lighting should be used; The illuminance requirements of the working surface are relatively high. Only the places where the general lighting is unreasonable should be used. Mixed lighting should be adopted; local lighting should not be used only in the same place. The standard specifies the lighting method.

(1) Terminology. The lighting method is the basic system according to the installation location or function of the lighting equipment: general lighting, lighting that is set to illuminate the entire site regardless of the special parts; general lighting in the partition, general lighting to improve the illumination of the specific area as needed Partial illumination, illumination for the special needs of certain parts (usually limited to a small range, such as work surfaces); mixed illumination, for general and partial illumination: direct illumination, semi-direct illumination, uniform Diffuse illumination and semi-indirect illumination, respectively, directly projecting the emitted light of 90%-100%, 60%-90%, 40%-60%, and 10%-40% of the lighting fixture to the working surface (no boundary) Lighting; functional lighting, a specialized type of lighting that is designed to perform a specific visual job or is designed for certain specific activities. A dimmer, a device that changes the luminous flux of a lamp in a device, and adjusts the level of illumination, and the like.

(2) Division method. In the CIE file, it is divided into general illumination, partition general illumination and local illumination according to the layout of the lamps and equipment. Hybrid lighting has also been added to China's specifications, which is based on the fact that it exists in actual design work.

In the industry, there are many ways to illuminate the current lighting. If you can generalize a variety of lighting (basic, attractive, induced, wall, ground, commodity, environment, local, display, special, backlight, etc.) into three fixed names, namely general lighting, accent lighting, and decorative lighting, It is conducive to research.

The principle of lighting is that no matter what kind of lighting method and lighting type is used, for the lighting design of civil buildings, the overall beauty of the building should be paid attention to from the lighting, selection, scale, material and structure of the lamps, installation parts and methods. Emphasis on lighting functions and neglect the characteristics of civil buildings, forgetting the overall requirements of building decoration. Of course, for places with high requirements for lighting functions, it is still necessary to actively cooperate with the improvement of architectural art effects on the premise of meeting the lighting technical indicators.

Lighting types The types of lighting in civil buildings mainly include normal lighting and emergency lighting. Emergency lighting, depending on its function, includes evacuation lighting, safety lighting, and standby lighting. In buildings, normal lighting should be determined based on the building's characteristics and usage.

Lighting quality improvement lighting is generally divided into two categories, one is functional lighting, including three elements of light bulbs, lamps and controls; the second is artistic lighting, which contains a wide range of content, it involves many aspects. When a building is presented in front of it, by observing the physical reality of the house, the reflection of light and shadow in people's minds will form a variety of experiences. Observing will also be completely different due to its own cultural heritage and life experience. Feeling. Furthermore, the physiological feelings are transmitted to the organs and turned into psychological cognition. The cultivation of human culture can also be precipitated in the heart through the transmission of light and shadow in the architectural space. Therefore, the improvement of the quality of architectural lighting is closely related to the learning and life of human beings. At present, the organic combination of lighting quality and lighting energy saving is particularly important.

The evaluation of lighting quality is shown in Table 2: 2 Improve lighting quality analysis Evaluation parameter standard Indoor illuminance Uniform brightness distribution Appropriate glare control Reasonable light directionality Good illuminance Stable strobe color temperature Color rendering quality Main content The illuminance in the environment will cause vision Not adapted. Uniformity stipulated by architectural lighting design standards: general lighting ≥ 0.7, partitions of general lighting rooms and other non-working areas > 1/5 of the working surface illuminance The appropriate brightness in the field of view is an important condition for a comfortable visual environment. When the brightness of the object to be viewed is 3 times of the brightness of the adjacent environment, it has good visual clarity. First, the appropriate light-transmitting material is selected to shield the high-brightness light source; the second is to control the light-shielding angle so that the angle of the 90°-r portion is determined. The shading angle is not good in the direction of illumination, causing shadows, reflections, and brightness distribution defects on the object, which in turn causes people to produce an unsatisfactory situation. The end of the fluorescent lamp is properly shielded, and the aging discharge lamp is periodically replaced. The lamp head is tapped to the three-phase circuit. In the above, the phase shifting circuit is used to increase the frequency of the power supply. The problem that the object exhibits a color-developing cold and warm feeling under the color illumination of the light source is not limited to simply reducing the light bulb and changing the control mode. In the actual operation, the energy consumption status of building lighting should be clarified and the huge space for energy saving of lighting should be found. Starting from the lighting energy-saving design, the lighting power should be saved as much as possible under the premise of ensuring sufficient quantity and quality of lighting. It will play a corresponding role in promoting the energy-saving work of building lighting as a whole.

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