LED emergency lighting case analysis

Emergency lighting is an important safety facility for modern public buildings and industrial buildings. It is closely related to personal safety and building safety. When a building has a fire or other disaster, accompanied by a power outage, emergency lighting has an important role in personnel evacuation, fire rescue work, and the continued operation or necessary operation and disposal of important production and work. Some developed countries and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) have set high requirements and detailed regulations.

In recent years, many high-rise public buildings and foreign-related buildings have been built in China, and the role of emergency lighting has become increasingly prominent, which has attracted the attention of fire departments and design units. However, China still lacks perfect and detailed standards and norms. The "Civil Building Lighting Design Standards" (hereinafter referred to as "People's Standards") and "Industrial Enterprise Lighting Design Standards" (hereinafter referred to as "Workmarks") have only very principled provisions.

In 1993, the China Lighting Society released the "Guide to Emergency Lighting Design", which absorbed advanced international standards, summed up the experience of China, and has certain guiding significance for design.

Now I will talk about my own understanding of several issues in emergency lighting design.

The name and classification of an emergency lighting

Since the 1950s, China has been using the term "accident lighting". In order to interface with the word "Emergency Lighting" commonly used in CIE and the United States and the United States, and considering more precise and more realistic, "Popular Standards" and "Workmarks" promulgated in the early 1990s have used "emergency lighting". ". The change of nouns is accompanied by some changes in content and technical requirements. For example, past accident lighting is divided into two categories, namely, emergency lighting for evacuation and continuing work; and the emergency lighting specified by the new standard is divided into three categories, namely, evacuation lighting, safety lighting, and standby lighting. This three-category approach is consistent with CIE's Guide to Emergency Lighting in Buildings. However, the classification of countries is not uniform, such as the Netherlands and CIE; the United States "personal safety regulations" are divided into four categories, that is, evacuation lighting is divided into two categories, therefore, and CIE classification is closer; and the former Soviet Union and the United States norms still Is divided into two categories;

Judging from the situation in the past two years, some designers are still not very clear about the classification and its meaning, which makes the engineering design not meet the requirements. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the meaning, function and how to design each of the three types of emergency lighting, especially the role of evacuation lighting. The function of evacuation lighting shall provide the evacuation passage with the necessary illumination for walking towards the exit direction and shall clearly mark the exit position. According to these functions, evacuation lighting friends should be divided into two categories: one is evacuation lighting, etc. - providing the necessary illumination for the evacuation channel; the second is the evacuation indicator light - for the sign and indicating the exit. The functions of these two types of lamps are different. The form and installation position of the lamps are different and cannot be confused. In particular, the evacuation indicator light, there are many internationally common expressions and technical requirements, and can not be applied at will.

Illumination of emergency lighting

The new "Popular Standards" and "Workmarks" have a principled comparison. There are also some problems in the design. Since the illumination illumination is mostly low, the uniformity is generally not high, and the average illumination is very different from the minimum illumination. In addition, the entire site is required to have certain parts and regions with the specified illumination, which is not the same.

Illumination is high and low, in addition to visual conditions, it is also related to the economic level and energy conditions of a country.

Evacuation illumination, the US regulations are not less than 10Lx (down to 6Lx at the end of the duration), Japan is not less than 1Lx (not less than 2Lx when using fluorescent lamps), and CIE is not less than 0.2Lx. China's "workmark" requires that the main evacuation channel should not be lower than 0.5Lx. The fire code requires that the minimum illumination should not be less than 0.5Lx. The illuminances specified by the two are the same, but the actual difference is very large. The "working standard" uses the average illuminance, while the main channel is specified, and not all is required.

Considering the actual situation in China, with reference to the CIE and US regulations, it is recommended that the billing system generated at least on the ground centerline of the evacuation channel should not be lower than 0.5Lx. And should maintain a good uniformity.

As for the illumination of safe lighting and standby lighting, the "Workmark" regulations should not be lower than 5% and 10% of general lighting. This is a general principle. I think the following two characteristics should be considered in the design and treated differently:

The first is that certain areas should be illuminated. For example, the operating table should maintain the same illumination as normal lighting. Some important public places, such as the International Conference Center, the International Competition Stadium, and the Fire Command Center, should have The same illumination as normal lighting.

The second is the standby and safety lighting in some places, such as the fire control room, generator room, distribution substation, etc., mainly to ensure the necessary work and the required illumination of the operating parts, without requiring the entire room or place to achieve the specified uniformity.