In the "12th Five-Year Plan" period, the cogeneration project will also be put into mass production.
On January 6th, the National Energy Work Conference was held. During the â€œ12th Five-Year Planâ€ period, thermal power was still the main power source in China. However, â€œcoordination of resources, environment, and market demand was needed to reasonably control the scale of thermal power construction for hydropower and nuclear power. New energy development such as wind power, leaving enough space."
The meeting also put forward the key directions for the development of thermal power in the future, which emphasizes the need to focus on the development of cogeneration: "In the northern heating cities and industrial parks with concentrated heat loads, combined with the elimination of decentralized heating boilers and small thermal power, the construction of cogeneration or thermoelectric cooling Joint supply project."
Significant achievements in CHP production â€œAs of the end of 2009, Chinaâ€™s combined capacity of cogeneration machines has reached 90.59 million kilowatts, accounting for more than 10% of Chinaâ€™s total installed power capacity. At the same time, due to the support of relevant national policies, Chinaâ€™s co The development momentum is very rapid.â€ Zhou Xiujie, a researcher in the energy industry of China Investment Advisors, told the China Energy News reporter.
The state paid great attention to cogeneration projects early on. As early as the 1950s, it supported the establishment of a number of regional thermal power plants. In 1998 and 2000, they issued the "Several Regulations on the Development of Cogeneration" and the "Regulations on the Development of Cogeneration". The introduction of these policies has greatly promoted the development of China's cogeneration projects.
According to relevant information, since the reform and opening up, especially in the 21st century, the assembly capacity and annual heat supply of our country's combined heat and power supply have increased year by year, and the rate of coal consumption for power generation and heating has decreased year by year. By the end of 2007, the countryâ€™s installed power generation capacity reached 71,329 million kilowatts, of which the power plant assembly capacity was 5.5542 million kilowatts, and the heating machine assembly capacity was 99.17 million kilowatts, which accounted for 17.9% of the total national thermal power assembly machine capacity during the same period, and the annual heating capacity was 2613 million kilograms. Jiao.
â€œEspecially during the â€œ11th Five-Year Planâ€ period, the installed capacity of newly installed heating machines in the country is about 60 million kilowatts. By 2010, the total capacity of the heating machine assembly machines will reach 130 million kilowatts, which accounts for 18.2 percent of the total capacity of the national thermal power machine assembly machines during the same period. Tang Fei, a senior engineer of China Power Engineering Consulting Group, told the reporter that "Compared with foreign developed countries, there is still a large gap between China's hot-spot ratio."
According to reports, China's urban heating is still at a relatively low level, and the proportion of co-produced central heating is small. The proportion of scattered small boilers heating is still quite high. Some citiesâ€™ averages are only 26.9%, while Western developed countries For example, the combined heat and power supply in Finland is about 31.5%.
In addition, China's cogeneration capacity and heating equipment are also at a relatively low level. The capacity of the heating machine assembly machine accounts for about 18% of the country's total installed capacity, which is a small proportion. In contrast, Denmark's installed thermal power capacity accounted for 56% of total installed capacity in 1992 and reached nearly 66% in 2005.
â€œAnd due to the old models of heating units in our country, the coal consumption for electricity generation is higher. From the operating conditions in recent years, the coal consumption rate of most early thermal power plants exceeds 300 g/kWh, and there are a few small thermal power plants. The coal consumption rate of the power supply standard is higher than 400 g/kWh, while that of the Finnish cogeneration power grid is only 272 g/kWh.â€ An industry expert expressed his opinions on this.
The advantages of energy saving and environmental protection are obvious. â€œThe greatest advantage of the CHP project is energy saving and environmental protection.â€ Tang Fei said, â€œCompared to the thermal power production, the standard coal consumption rate of the combined heat and power generation is about 15-20 kg/gigajoules lower, and the standard coal consumption is The rate is about 30-50 grams/degree."
According to statistics, by the end of 2007, China's 6000 kilowatt and above heating machine assembly capacity was 99.17 million kilowatts, and the annual heating capacity was 2613 million kilojoules. It was estimated that the combined heat and power generation and heating will save about 30 million tons of standard coal annually, reducing The SO2, NO2, and dust emissions were approximately 2.5 million tons, 200,000 tons, and 3.6 million tons, respectively.
"Cogeneration can not only realize the heat supply of residents, but also can be used for steam for industrial projects." An industry expert emphasized to this reporter that "many industrial projects, such as large-scale printing and dyeing plants, chemical plants, and even laundry plants , hotels, hospitals, etc., can all use thermal power plants."
â€œSo, from this perspective, cogeneration produces both electrical energy and thermal energy. It uses high-grade thermal energy for power generation, low-grade heat energy for heating, and energy ladder utilization. It is a high efficiency. The forms of energy use have the combined benefits of energy conservation and environmental improvement,â€ said industry experts.
Policies still need to be refined Although cogeneration has great advantages, there are still many problems in its development.
â€œAt present, the country lacks specific regulations for provincial (regional and municipal)-level cogeneration plans, and it often happens that various localities in the province compete for thermoelectric projects by simply satisfying local heat demand, and there is a difficulty in coordinating and balancing heat and power. Question.â€ Industry experts told this reporter that â€œthere are common problems in the heat and power co-production projects where the funding source for external heating network construction is not clear, the implementation is not implemented, and construction progress is lagging behind.â€
According to the reporterâ€™s understanding, due to the problem of co-generation and decentralized boiler heating â€œdifferent prices at the same temperatureâ€ in some regions, thermoelectric power companies cannot enjoy the same heat price, preferential policies and subsidies for centralized boilers, but they often appear There was a delay in the payment of heat fees and an additional charge for heating power companies.
â€œThe small boilers with higher pollution levels and lower efficiency have no such costs for distributing heat, which is extremely unfair.â€ Industry experts said.
Due to the lack of policies, this led to the major power companies' interest in the CHP project is the installed capacity, rather than the basic starting point for heating. The use of cogeneration projects has been somewhat distorted.
"Although the 25,000-kilowatt back press can provide 300,000 kilowatts of heat for the condensing machine, power generation companies are not interested in heating. Therefore, back-pressure machine technology with higher heating efficiency has been left out." Experts told reporters, â€œThis practice of the company violates the direction of reducing the proportion of thermal power installations. Therefore, the subtle changes in the attitude of cogeneration in this report have removed the phrase â€œpositive developmentâ€. It may also be due to this. Thinking."
Further development requires coordination by all parties. â€œTo sum up, in order to promote better development of cogeneration, the country first needs to further standardize management, refine related policies, and do more specific research and planning.â€ Tang Fei put forward his own views. "Local governments also need to plan for heating and put heating and urban construction on an orderly track."
For the revision of relevant policies, in particular tax deductions, fiscal subsidies, loan concessions, etc., as different departments are involved, this requires that the relevant units do a good job of coordination under the unified national organization.
"The back pressure unit should be vigorously developed. It is a technology that meets China's energy development trend." Industry experts especially emphasized to this reporter that "there is no development at the moment. The key is that the policy is not in place. Companies do not see the benefits." A clear policy has effectively reduced the burden on enterprises, and with certain benefits, the development prospects of back pressure units in small and medium-sized cities are still very large."
(Note: Back-pressure gas turbines use a thermal load to adjust the power generation load, which means that the amount of power generation varies with the amount of steam supplied by the outside world, and how much gas is fed into the gas turbine is how much of it is discharged. Therefore, the back-pressure gas turbine is the most economical; The condensing gas turbine can generate electricity purely or can pump heat to the outside world, and its electrical and thermal properties can be mutually adjusted.)
After the compilation of the proposal on the development of cogeneration, how to better develop cogeneration, in the interview process, the industry has its own views, although there may be bias, but these recommendations will inevitably promote the development of cogeneration effect. Therefore, this article is specially published for readers' reference.
First, do a good job of special planning for provincial (city and district) level cogeneration, planning to guide the orderly development of cogeneration projects;
Second, accelerate the improvement of the urban heating system reform, establish a thermal power supply and demand management mechanism, and clarify the positioning of thermoelectric enterprises;
3. Establish a sound and reasonable pricing system for hot prices, reasonably measure heating costs and formulate thermal classification prices, and study the specific determination indicators for the revision of combined heat and power units.
4. Strengthen and attach importance to the planning and construction of urban heating pipe network, increase government investment, and implement the sources of funds to ensure that the construction of supporting heat networks and the construction of cogeneration projects are â€œsimultaneously planned, designed, synchronized, and put into operationâ€.
V. Improve the relevant preferential policies for the heating reform of active condensing units; when there are conditions for heat conversion of condensing units for existing power plants in the surrounding cities, the newly approved or expanded thermoelectric projects may be given priority under the premise of implementation of heat transformation.
6. Improve the construction investment of the cogeneration project, electricity price, heat price, taxation, energy conservation, emission reduction, environmental protection, and other preferential policies, and establish a supervision and management mechanism for cogeneration projects with â€œconcessions and penaltiesâ€.
At 10:48 on the January 18th, the heating unit at the first station of Jinghai Power Plant in Wuhai, Inner Mongolia, was commissioned. It is reported that the first stage project of Jinghai Power Plant is a 2300MW unit and will eventually reach a heating capacity of 5 million square meters. This will effectively alleviate the lack of local heat sources, thereby greatly improving the quality of heating.